ааа ааа ааа ааа ааа ааа
ааа ааа ааа ааа ааа ааа ааа ааа ааа ааа ааа ааа ааа ааа ааа ааа ааа MOSCOW and MOSCOW
It composed Vladimir Lebedev in 2001 and updated in 2003.
I'm a native muscovite was born here in 1947. Esperanto I have learnt
independently in 1985 and I prefer to use it for correspondence with the
adherents. By trade I'm a builder. My solid age and experience of an esperantist
require from me to leave more or less appreciable trace in our perfect country
Esperanto according to my modest abilities. In my opinion the acquaintance
to the various countries, languages and peoples is the most important and
interesting purpose of any esperantist. Therefore has occurred my idea to
compose an essay about Moscow in hope, that it will open eyes of the reader
interested about Russia and Russians.
Really the heading looks slightly strange, you see are obvious a noun and an adjective with one root (Note: in Esperanto the ending "O" specifies on a belonging of a word to a noun, and the ending "A" - to an adjective), but here goes speech about two various objects located in one place: Moscow is a city, also Moscow is a river. I have chosen it from others because four reasons: 1. To specify a correct spelling of a word Moscow, as frequently ending "O" deforms original words and prevents the foreigners to catch their true sense and correct pronunciation; 2. To specify a correct accent falling on last letter "A" (the Note: in Esperanto the accent falls necessarily on the penultimate vowel); 3. Once more to give reason for advantages of the language Esperanto only entered the letter "V" in the dictionary, you see other basic European languages: English - "Moscow", French - "Moscou", Italian - "Mosca", German - "Moskau" in general have lost this letter; 4. Just as any writer I try with the help of the unique heading to attract attention of the probable readers!
I am not sure that the described theme already is issued in Esperanto in other words, however I hope, that my first test of pen will be a good and useful source of knowledge for anyone interested man, whose opinion on it with gratitude will be accepted by the author.
Under the Constitution of Russian Federation only two cities: Moscow
and St. Petersburg have the equal rights with other 87 subjects (republics,
provinces and other wide regions), that emphasizes their present significance
and historically outstanding role in life of the country. Formally last time
Moscow became capital of Russia in 1991, though before it was also capital
of the Soviet Union.
ааа In Moscow all most important managing bodies of the country are functional. In Kremlin is a residence of the president of Russia. Moscow is the most important industrial, scientific, educational, financial and cultural centre of the country. It is located in the European part of the country on coast of Moscow river running in Oka, which in turn runs into Volga. The area of the city makes about 1000 sq.km also is limited in the basic Ring Highway reconstructed recently.
Administratively under Moscow is Zelonograd town , located in 30 km. Their joint quantity of the inhabitants in 1999 totalled 8.5 millions,а from which 55 % make the women. In Moscow lives the representatives of 130 peoples, mainly Russians. Moscow is the important railway junction, and also harbour of five seas environmental the European part of Russia, due to the navigable rivers and the large artificial channels.
Climate in Moscow is moderate, continental. The winter season usually begins in November and comes to an end in March. Absolute low temperature was registered in 1942, when was - 42C. Usual summer temperature is equal +22C though sometimes it exceeds +34C.
Moscow is located above plentiful underground water pool, which always delivered to the local population tasty fresh water with medical properties.
The relief of the city is rough, highest point reaches 200m above sea level. It was generated by many rivers and brooks flowing here (now many from them are put into underground pipes) among the basic seven hills.
Main water artery is Moscow river incorporating together with Yauza inflow near Kremlin. In olden time in Moscow there were many floods and to liquidate their negative consequences, were dug the huge channel and about 300 ponds.
Always territory of Moscow was filled by rich woods, basically with trees of coniferous breeds: a fur tree, pine etc. In 2000 in Moscow of 10 000 hectares were covered by trees growing mainly in parks. The territory, convenient for residing, attracted here not only people, but also birds, animals and others, which became subjects for a plentiful hunt. Till now extensive sites of the city have kept kind memoirs on those times in the names: Elk Island, Falcon, Chase Line etc.
THE FOUNDATION of a FORTRESS
There are three basic versions of an origin and translation of the word
"Moscow". The first, more often used, speaks that this place always was damp
and consequently our ancestors in the ancient language it so have named.
The second version assumes, that the root of the word has come from language
any of not Russian people and means - She Bear. The third is similar to the
second, but it is translated as - Cow ford.
Was repeatedly proved, that already in epoch of neolithic age here were settlements of the hunters, fishermen, cattle breeders etc., which well understood its main advantage because of the navigable Moscow river turning in winter in a convenient sledge way of firm ice.
The written chronicles for the first time mention Moscow in 1147, when Vladimir-Suzdal prince Jury (George) Dolgoruky has met here his ally prince Svyatoslav and has organized the large banquet.
To him has liked a little village, located on a high left coast of Moscow river in a place named Borovitsky hill, which suited for foundation on it a fortress. Under the order of the prince a place have named just as the river - Moscow.
In 1156 in Moscow the wooden citadel was incorporated which has become
famous as Kremlin later. The occurrence of a root of this word is not known
till now. Some suppose its origin from a word "flint", proving its unusual
hardness and fortress. Others assert, that the word has taken place from
"needles" as in the basic coniferous trees were used for construction of a
fortress. In the 14th century the walls of limestone have appeared which in
the 15th century were replaced by brick. The great Italian architect Antonio
Solario supervised over works and he was also author of some perfect structures
inside a fortress kept up to now. 1045 merlons, similar to the letter "M"
of thick (6,5m) walls of length 2235m, were very convenient for its guard
during a defence against attacking enemies. 20 towers with high spikes were
at all unapproachable and are an outstanding example of medieval military
In the plan the territory of Kremlin is similar to a triangle and occupies 28 hectares. At its centre is Cathedral Square surrounded by beautiful cathedrals and temples, from which most known is the cathedral of the Assumption, because in it ware crowned all Russian tsars and empresses, the most important imperial decrees announced, and also buried all chiefs of Russian Orthodox church.
The white yellow facade of Grand Palace is seen above redrawn walls of Kremlin and it's beautifully reflected in a light blue water surface of Moscow river. Grand Palace, Arsenal, Faceted chamber, Diamond fund, Palace of Congresses and many other outstanding structures attract here huge number of the visitors, which come not only to examine sights, but also to get acquainted with a history of Russia.
However two objects are usual more all attract attention come. The first Tsar Cannon made from bronze in 1586 the Russian foreman Anton Chokhov. Its length exceeds 5 meters, and weight - 40 tons. Calibre of a trunk is 890 mm! The second is established on a granite pedestal and is known as Tsar Bell. It weighs about 200 tons, its height and diameter are equal to 6m. It have cast the father and son Motorin in 1735. Both are largest in the world. The Russian word "tsar" has taken place from an ancient latin word "caesar",а which ware named the monarchs. In this case it have added to the cannon and to the bell to emphasize their unique sizes, and also to express the respect to tsar Theodore and to empress Anna.
THE RED SQUARE
The modern Russian word "red" in olden time had other meaning: "beautiful"
and consequently its present translation not absolutely correct, though on
it also stand a little of redrawn buildings. It is obvious that more correctly
to name it - the Beautiful Square. It always reflected public and political
life of Russia and Soviet Union, as here happened of national indignations
and revolts, executes, manifestations and parades. Some name it: "A mute
history of the country ".
The area is to east from Kremlin and occupies about 7 hectares. It's surround the Historical museum, huge shop GUM and Pokrovsky (Veil) cathedral. Six roads here converge which constantly are packed by the tourists and passers.
The most known tower of Kremlin is Spasskaya (Our Saviour) tower, which has a pass. The big gilt chimes with black dials and are inserted into all four parties of the tower by the gilt arrows. Its spike crones a ruby star. The chiming clock marks everyone a quarter of hour by music, different for years of the existence according to tastes of the governors of the given epoch. It also is a symbol of Moscow and beautifully looks on awards, medals, badges, post marks etc.
Other world famous symbol of Moscow and Russia is Lenin mausoleum, open for visiting andа constructed ofа a deeper granite, in which since 1924 is the embalmed body of Vladimir Lenin (Ulyanov) - founder of the Soviet Union. During parades the mausoleum has also pedestal for a management of the country, which acclaimed past going demonstrators. Near there are two brotherly tombs of the revolutionaries, and also separate tombs of the outstanding figures USSR: Stalin, Brezhnev, Andropov etc. Next in the Kremlin walls are the urns with ashes of some known men: Gagarin (the first cosmonaut), Zhukov (military commander become famous was buried during the Second world war and deserved only four highest awards - Hero of the Soviet Union), Korolyov (author and designer of the first space ships) etc.
A little away from the Red Square is a tomb of the Unknown soldier and cubic stones with the names of the Soviet cities - heroes, always with flowers, to which put wreathes to express respect to numerous victims of our people.
Though the State historical museum has constructed only in 1881, but its architects and builders have managed to combine its beautiful appearance with more old Kremlin and both look similar, supplementing one another.
In northern corner of the Red Squareа recently was restored the Kazan cathedralа which was based by prince Dimity Pozharsky in 1620 in honour of a victory above Polish invaders.
Many different events happened on the Red Square but all the same its main applicability were the market and trade. Now area already has lost this importance, however it's east party decorates a very beautiful grey three-storeyed building of huge shop GUM, constructed in 1893, whose remarkable show windows represent the high quality goods and products.
In a southern part of the Red Square is an incomparable masterpiece of the Russian architects Barma and Postnik: Pokrovsky (Veil) cathedral, which the muscovites prefer to name the Cathedral of Basil Beatific, constructed at the end of the 16th century under the order of tsar Ivan Grozny in commemoration of a victory above the Kazan (tatar) khan land. On a legendа the tsar was very much admired with beauty of a wonderful building and generously has presented the architects. Simultaneously he was asked them: "Can you create something same beautiful? ".
Those unfortunately have agreed, for what the tsar give an order them to blind, that those may not create anything new. It is impossible by words to describe all its beauty, though it is by all means necessary to note it's painted walls with frescos and nine domes of the different form with the gilt crosses. The cathedral is near to a front entrance in Kremlin - Spasskaya tower and obviously, that here passed the most important events in a history of the country. Near it is established a monument to two important representatives of Russian people: prince Dimity Pozharsky and handicraftsman Kuzma Minin, which supervised over national army in the beginning of the 17th century in war against Polish invaders. In 1818 grateful fellow countrymen have collected money to a monument, whose weight makes about 20 tons.
As beside is located the Forehead place similar to a round pedestal from limestone, on which announced the most important imperial decrees, and also acted the orators. The truth some speak, that it served also a place execute, but written proofs to this was not kept. The area is rough: its northern party is lowered to the river, put into a pipe, Neglinka, and southern - to Moscow river. The surface of the area is made from firm granite stones, capable to resist not only soles of many tourists, but also tracks of tanks and other military machines participating in parades.
DEVELOPMENT of the CITY
It is possible to deduce from the above given facts, that Moscow mainly
was a fortress, which frequently attacked enemies, therefore there were
large destructions, the fires etc. Within centuries muscovites were compelled
to strengthen the citadel and nearest settlements. Therefore on the present
plan of Moscow till now are visible ancient round bastions surrounding city
centre, which were transformed to streets and boulevards later. Also ways,
connecting Moscow with other cities, have turned in due course to the wide
avenues and highways similar to radial beams directed from the centre outside.
Importance of Moscow gradually grew, as important defended locality of Vladimir-Suzdal principality is especial against the Tatar-Mongolian armies of Gold Horde. However in 1237-1238 years enemies all the same smash up small garrison of the fortress and to the basis burn out the wooden city. Russians very much loves and frequently uses the saying which has come them of those times: "Every cloud has a silver lining", therefore awful destructions only stimulated restoration of the city by more modern technologies and materials proof to fire.
At the end of the 13th century Moscow began to reign Danila, son of prince Alexander, become famous by the victories above the knights of Teutonic order and Swedish armies. Now he is sacred also and known as Alexander Nevsky (pseudonymа Neva river has given him, near which there was one of the most severe fights now flowing through city St. Petersburg).
The important event has taken place in 1326, when during government of prince Ivan Kalita Moscow became also place, where the management of Russian Orthodox church has settled down, that clearly has caused growth of quantity of clergy, believers etc.
In that time the majority of Russian princes were vassals of the Gold Horde and were compelled to pay annual tribute. Certainly such situation could not them satisfy and consequently frequently there were revolts against occupationistes. However the strong Gold Horde easily suppressed each separate performance. Only prince Dimity has managed to collect the All Russia army and after all in 1380 has gained a victory above the Tatar-Mongolian enemies. The large fight has taken place on Kulikovo field, on coast of Don river. It has given to the prince a name Dimity Donskoy.
In vicinities of Moscow there was a lot of limestone, therefore for strengthening Kremlin the prince has ordered to make its walls from this convenient for processing, white material. It also applied to construction of many monasteries which have arisen in Moscow at the end of the 14th century: Andronnikov - 1362, Simonov -1379, Visokopetrovsky - 1380, Christmas -1386, Sretensky -1397 etc. All of them were intended not only for church businesses, but also for a defence.
Though now walls of Kremlin and mentioned monasteries already are reconstructed and have other colour, however since then Moscow usually name "white stone", adding sometimes "gold head". Both adjectives now became synonyms of a name Moscow, therefore when any inhabitant of Russia speaks: " we shall go in the white stone " or " something has taken place in the gold head ", everyone understand, that the speech goes about Moscow.
Prince Ivan III has left the very important trace in a history of Russia by the significant businesses, among which there was his marriage in 1472 to Byzantine princess Sofia Paleolog, which as a dowry has transferred the national emblem of the Byzantine empire Ц the doubleheader eagle. This event was completely not ordinary and required of the prince of higher status and attributes sole monarch.
Then Moscow already rules by significant territory and has subordinated to itself many principalities, therefore Ivan III has announcedа itself " by the Great prince of All Russia". A new title and desire his spouses living in perfect Constantinople (nowа Istanbul), have forced him to reconstruct Kremlin and its palaces. For this purpose the great Italian architects were invited: Antonio Solario, Aristotel Figrovanti and others. Simultaneously outside Kremlin the so-called Kitay - city was formed (means a place, fenced by a wooden fence), whose walls also were altered by brick. As a word "Kitay" now Russians name the country China, therefore sometimes foreigners wrong understand it and translate as " Chinese town ". Length more than 2.6 km, thickness 8.0m of those walls even exceed Kremlin.
Except for garrison, market, workshops of the handicraftsmen and apartment houses there gradually were appear foreign embassies, from which only a majestic, stone building of the English embassy till now was kept.
Inside Kitay - city the printed court yard was organized, on which in 1564 Ivan Fedorov and Peter Mstislavets, have let out the first printed book "Apostle". There was a first Russian university a little bit later: the Slavic Greek Academy.
The grandson of Ivan III at christening have named the same as his grandfather (comment. Such tradition is kept in Russia till now), though nobody could assume, that he during government will get a nickname "the Terrible" for numerous wars against external enemies and for oppressions of the citizens.
Moscow is the birthplace of first Russian tsar Ivan IV (Terrible), crowned on the 16th of January, 1547 in Assumption cathedral of Kremlin, which since young years dreamed to reign independently as well as all West European monarchs.
He did not accept the previous title "prince", which was incorrectly perceived abroad and was translated as "prince" or "duke". Tsar (Russian pronunciation of a word "caesar") was equalled to a title of the Emperor of Sacred Roman empire and consequently facilitated the diplomatic relations with other states a little.
The history mentions a name of the Ivan IV not only as a despot, but also as founder remarkable Pokrovsky (Veil) cathedral worth on the Red Square, about which is told above.
The extended contacts of the Moscow governors with foreign, trade and other reasons have caused interest to Moscow of many strangers. The majority of them ware Protestants, escape from Western Europe during religious wars, which have based here settlement on coast of the river Yauza. It have nicknamed German village, though, clearly, there lived not only Germans, as then Russians usually preferred to name all foreigners who have come from West, which did not speak in Russian. The customs, habit, clothes, languages and in general unusual image of life of the inhabitants there considerably have affected on formation of world conception of young tsarevich (son of a tsar) Peter, which became famous Peter I later.
This outstanding person also name Peter the Great, because really many have left him deeds a great trace in the Russian history. They require separate illumination, however present theme a little bit another, therefore is necessary only to mention, that though Peter I was born in Moscow in 1672, but he it as a whole did not love because of many reasons. In childhood he was tested adverse vital conditions here and even two unsuccessful attempts for his life, which were organized by his spiteful relatives.
From his epoch in Moscow three most important names were kept only: Lefortovo, Preobrazhenskoe and Semenovskoe, which now carry the appropriate urban areas. The first has owned of Swiss Lefort, who was a favourite of Peter I. On area of two others two first regular Russian regiments were formed whose soldiers were dressed and are armed by western sample. A little bit later these regiments became in fact a base for organization of new Russian army, due to which border of the country were removed far from Moscow.
In 1712 just based St. Petersburg became capital of Russia and accordingly all main government agencies were transferred there from Moscow. Then the construction from a stone in Moscow was abruptly reduced, and after 1714 absolutely has stopped under the order of the tsar.
In 1730 the first exact plan of Moscow by perfect geodetic tools was made. Then the first oil lanterns illuminating centreа of the city have appeared.
The important contribution to the further development of urban construction was brought by the architect Matvey Kazakov, whose majestic buildings till now decorate city. A senate in Kremlin (1787), University (1793), the first Urban hospital (1801), manor of Demidov (1791), Peter's palace (1782) and other magnificent buildings are the remarkable representatives so-called " Russian classicism " - new architectural style. Under his management the architectural school was organized and his apprentices have continued famous business of the teacher later.
It is necessary to notice, that the Moscow university strongly has suffered because of a fire in time Napoleon occupation of Moscow in 1812 and later was reconstructed under the direction of the architect Dominique Jilyardy. At the end of the 19tn century here the founder of language Esperanto Ludvig Zamenhof studied medicine. Now in this building the faculty of journalism functions only, and the basic educational premises of the Moscow state university (MGU) are in the other place.
The significant growth of territory of Moscow has caused to create so-called " the Earthen rampart " in a circle of 32 kms with 16 pickets to carry out the customs control. Now so name some Moscow sites, though the rampart was transformed to the beautiful, wide avenueа Garden Ring separating the urban centre from its vicinities.
By the end of the 18th century have lost defence importance huge walls facing between monasteries, therefore them have destroyed, and on the exempted place have arranged picturesque boulevards with many trees and flowers. Now they formsа Boulevard Ring ring convenient for promenades and rest.
Simultaneously near Moscow there are some nobiliary manors, which became by a part of city later. In these palaces museums now works and everyone deserves the extend description, but I`ll mention only Ostankino, though its owner - count Sheremetev in Moscow and close others beautiful palaces.
His name is kept till now in a name of a street going to north from city centre.
The name of manor is difficult for translating from old Russian and probably that at one time it sounded in another way. The historians translate it as " Last stop ".
Within many centuries this territory was covered with rich, impassable woods, in which the oaks prevailed. In the18th century the owner of a site became count Sheremetev, which liked this place with a beautiful pond and healthy climate. For summer rest there he ordered to construct not heated palace near old church. His desire perfectly was realized by his Russian serfs, many of which studied architecture and other appropriate sciences at known western universities. The legend speaks an inauguration was held in the summer 1798.
To strike imagination of tsar Paul I, invited on a holiday, the count some trees ordered short to saw and to tieа them with cords. During an entrance imperial coach (N.B. As our language Esperanto is beautiful! A comment. In Esperantoа a word "tsar" and "coach" sound almost equally and differ from each other only diacritical sign), the trees were tumbled suddenly down in two opposite parties and immediately kind on light pink palace and redrawn church has opened, whose beautiful silhouettes were reflected in a smooth surface of lake.
Because of the state duties the owner of the manor had no the right constantly to be in Moscow, where had many possession, from which manor Kuskovo also has become famous, as then capital of Russia was St. Petersburg, however he found any case to visit in palace Ostankino and to have a good time in it, looking theatrical performances.
It is self-evident, that troupe of theatre made him serfs, from which most beautiful and talented was Praskovia Kovaleva (on a stage her named Zhemchugova or Pearl), according to then customs. The count has grown fond of the girl and could not cool the passion in any way. After some time there was a wedding, and later and pregnancy of the young wife. Unfortunately mother has not seen the baby, as she has died during sorts.
The very much grieved husband has ordered for the best memory of the favourite wife to construct hospital for poor and beggars, which functions till now. The facade of this majestic building is inverted to city centre and is a part of a huge medical complex carrying a name of the professor Sklifasofsky.
As was already told, the wooden plastered palace was intended mainly for summer rest and in winter it has empty. Two centuries clearly seriously have damaged separate building elements and consequently it requires constant updating and repair. Now there a museum of national creativity representing then life including theatrical performances functions, in which accept participation the actors dressed in costumes of the 18th century.
The remarkable church Sacred Trinity is reconstructed under the direction of the Russian architect Paul Argunov, a serf of the count Sheremetev. A temple and the palace create as though uniform wonderful ensemble, which admires all observers.
The non erasable trace was left in a history of Moscow by Domestic war against the French army begun in 1812. Russian could not win fight under Borodino which is taking place in 100 kms to west from Moscow, though in it many were lost soldiers from both parties. After it the Russian commander -in-chief the field marshal Michael Kutuzov was asked the military colleagues: "whetherа we shall continue resistance, as a result of which our army will be lost or we shall leave Moscow on short time to restore forces? ". Many generals and officers, is especial muscovites, did not want to leave the favourite city, but after all the field marshal ordered to recede.
The French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, itself supervising army, long expected keys from the city, was in Peter's palace and examining Moscow from Poklonnaya mountain. However he them has not received also the 2nd of September, 1812 Moscow was occupied.
The muscovites at all did not wish to leave to enemies uncountable treasures taking place in city and consequently before deviation many house owners set on fire the dwellings. In result of almost two third urban space were burnt and destroyed. The come colds, shortage of premises, suitable for residing, and foodstuffs have forced the French the 8th of October to leave Moscow.
Also Napoleon very much was afraid to be surrounded and attacked the amplified Russian army working together with partisans.
Before a withdrawal Napoleon ordered to blow up Kremlin, but the lack of gunpowder has not allowed to destroy it completely, though some towers and walls were seriously injured.
Huge trophies from gold products, jewellery etc has taken out from Moscow Napoleon, but the constant attacks of the Russian army during the winter have compelled him to throw almost everything to facilitate the fast deviation. Unfortunately till now those treasures are not found, though there were many attempts to find even something.
The emperor of Russia Alexander I has nominated Joseph Bove as the main architect of Moscow and has ordered to rebuild up the city as probably faster. He responsibly and skilfully has executed the duties and rights. He has created the detailed project of urban construction, which adjusted each restoration, including architectural style, colour of facades, quantity of floors etc. He has forbidden construction of houses from a tree in the city centre. All this has helped to order an arrangement of new structures to make the city more beautiful.
At the same time flowing near walls of Kremlin Neglinka river was put into a pipe and above it have formed Alexander Garden, which now is one of the most favourite places of rest of muscovites and visitors of the capital. In its beginning near Arsenal tower there is a tomb of the Unknown soldier, on which burns eternal fire in honour of the numerous soldier, by their lives achieve a victory above nazism during the Second world war. On dark brown granite plates the words are cut: " Your name is not known, your feat is not forgotten ", which are always decorated with fresh flowers.
Gradually the city has got new, additional functions, as the industry has appeared and considerably trade inside the country has increased. Mills and factories, banks, stock exchanges, stations and the large shops appreciably have changed a kind of Moscow. It has caused growth of quantity of the city dwellers, which to middle of the 19th century have reached 500 000.
It is self-evident, that the workers and employees of Moscow required public transport, and that soon has appeared as horse vehicle, moving on rails. Russians have nicknamed it "konka". In 1899 it was superseded by the car with the electromotor, which is known now as a tram.
The speed of the first trams was rather low (about 11 km/h) and consequently the muscovites frequently grumbled, and also tenderly named the most used routes as "A" (Annushka) and "B" (Bukashka or Insect). In 1851 the railway has connected Moscow and St. Petersburg under the order of tsar Nicholas I, which before has drawn a direct line on a map between two cities of Russia. A bit later Moscow was crossed already by ten large railway lines.
Any city and the more so the large city requires a so-called municipal services necessary for the normal functioning and convenient residing of the population. To deliver in city fresh water in 1804 have constructed aqueduct from town Mitishy, similar on same of Ancient Rome.
Later in Moscow have arranged the water drain for cleaning of sewage from the areas and streets. At the end of the 19th century the electrical fixtures began to supersede candles. Almost simultaneously in Moscow the telephone has come. However it is necessary to note, that the technical progress generally occurred in city centre and its advantages were shown in stone houses of the rich men. The other part of city still long remained wooden and very much resembled on large village, where technical innovation came much later.
In March, 1918 Moscow actually became a place of stay of new government under Lenin's management, which has put up at Kremlin. Then the civil war caused by the First world war and October revolution, has caused huge collapse of Russian industry and agriculture, impoverishment of the people.
To the death in 1924 Lenin was in time only to formulate the most important purposes of economic restoration of the country and its subsequent prosperity, though he has ratified the project GOELRO and beginnings to build new power stations necessary for normal functioning of Moscow and other cities.
Moscow is actually cradle of unusual state model of arisen the 30th of December, 1922, when four independent republics (Russia, Ukraine, Byelorussia and Caucasus) have based by voting of the delegates Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics USSR, that promoted Vladimir Lenin much. Up to his disintegration in 1991 in it the members were 15 republics, whose population totalled about 300 000 000 and the area occupied the one sixth part of a surface of the Earth.
Stalin within 30 years of rules by the country till 1953 and much has made for reorganization of Moscow and all country. Then the numerous new mills and factories, stadiums, large channel, connect Moscow river with Volga etc. have appeared. It is self-evident, the muscovites also have received more good conditions for residing, because then built much new inhabited quarters and reconstructed old. To expand streets and to make the avenues moved by a new, unique way multi-storey houses, valuable from the architectural party, which inhabitants at all did not leave during process!
Now any passer in northern part of the city sees grandiose monument " the Worker and the Kolkhoznitza (the worker and the collective farmer woman) ", created by the outstanding Russian sculptor Vera Mukhina. The dynamically monument made of a brilliant material, was represented by USSR at the Parisian world exhibition in 1938. Both persons hold in the hands crossed a sickle and a hammer, which were by a symbol of the Soviet Union earlier. It is established on a background of other display exhibit which has come back in Moscow from Montreal (Canada) in 1967, whose forms are similar to a big starting platform for rocket start.
Actually there is an extensive territory (about 150 ha), which is occupied by the All Russia exhibition centre, has appear the 1 of August, 1939, as the allusion agricultural exhibition. The central entrance is very similar to Brandenburg gate in Berlin (Germany) or to a Triumphal arch. It crones a smaller on the sizes sculpture as representing the worker and the kolkhoznitza (N.B. Kolkhoz in Russian means a collective farm or co-operative), made from gilded metal.
Eleven republics (in fact states) making then USSR have constructed own pavilions in national styles to present the achievement.
Since the 16 of June, 1959 it began to refer to as an Exhibition of achievement of a national economy, having added novelties of an industry. Here visitors could examine, check in practice all exhibits and get liked, to exchange experience about modern problems and to pick up necessary technological innovations for manufacture. It was actually transformed to fair of samples.
At the centre of the exhibition the exact copy of a rocket, which piloted the first Soviet cosmonaut Jury Gagarin on the 12th of April, 1961 is established. Beside the pavilion "Space" function which was most visited, whose present pitiable condition plan to improve.
Separately it is necessary to note occurrence of the Moscow underground which has begun to function on the 15th of May, 1935. Its construction was actually display of heroism of then working youth, under leadership of the KomSoMol, as under ground there was a very damp ground complicating the drifting. Desire of a then management also requires the remark to prove advantages of socialism by any way, therefore Moscow underground was under construction not only as a convenient underground road, but also and as most perfect in the world, whose stations were decorated with beautiful sculptures, frescos, mosaic etc., which look as incomparable, perfect palaces.
Many human lives were rescued in the underground during the Second world war, when bomb Moscow. The really awful time was lead muscovites and defenders of the capital in the autumn of 1941, when the German armies have reached its outskirts. However in December of that year, after grandiose fight, nazists were seriously broken and fight back. In June, 1945 the muscovites are exact in four years from a beginning of Great Domestic War and all Soviet people celebrated the victory above Hitler Germany, whose trophy standards were thrown to Lenin mausoleum on the Red Square.
In the post-war epoch of development of Moscow the construction of unique highest and extensive buildings intended, basically, for the ministries, hotels and universities was marked. They remind pyramidal towers with many cone shaped spikes. The most outstanding and perfect representative of this architectural style is MGU (Moscow State University), taking place on Vorobyov mountains on a high coast of Moscow river, from which the picturesque panorama of Moscow is clearly visible.
The important trace in development of Moscow was left by the next governor USSR - Nikita Khrushev, whose name now recollect in connection with many inhabited typical houses constructed during his management by the country.
These buildings had, as a rule five floors, and were made of the large blocks made at factories. This new building technology has allowed during short time partially to solve a very difficult problem on satisfaction of desire of the city dwellers to live in comfortable houses, to visitа modern shops, to be treated in the perfect polyclinics etc. Then the whole quarters as for example Cheremushky, Maryina Grove, Degunino and many others have appeared which included all necessary for residing and they very much liked the inhabitants, which usually moved there from old, wooden houses. Unfortunately now these buildings already have decayed also their operation is complicated, therefore them have begun tear down.
In general new houses were then free-of-charge and pleasant gifts for new settlers, though 5 floor buildings occupied huge territory of the city and have caused a new problem - transport. Already mentioned and other urban areas had no enough of workplaces and, hence, majority of the inhabitants were compelled each morning to be sent to the far located workplaces and to come back in the evening home.
These quarters the local inhabitants usually name "sleeping". Wonderfully also that, as at home typical, they are similar one to another, as the twins. This fact is an essence of popular Russian film " Irony of destiny... ", in which a bit tight hero comes in an another's apartment which is taking place in St. Petersburg, instead in Moscow, also meets there a new beloved...
The new remarkable stage of the development began in Moscow in 1991, when the mayor became Yury Luzhkov. Disintegration of the USSR and the capitalist concept of a new Russian management strongly has changed influence of the state to urban problems. The majority of factories and other enterprises functioning in Moscow were urgently privated and, hence, should independently decide industrial tasks and think of prospects. As capital of Russia Moscow has the certain advantages, in comparison with other Russian cities, for reception of the necessary taxes, sufficient for continuation of construction of municipal habitation which is handed over in employment, though its quantity appreciably has decreased recently. Gradually Moscow industry loses the last importance and consequently on a place of former huge factories and factories frequently there are new banks, offices, shops etc.
It is necessary to note as a minimum three objects appeared in Moscow recently, the idea about which belongs to the present mayor. The first is close from the Red Square under ground, has three floors and is intended for trade. The over ground part of this most beautiful trade complex represents glass domes of the various form, which in the summer wash water fountains. Beside flows an artificial stream, reminding about Neglinka river, put into a pipe. The bronze unique sculptures are represented with the characters from popular Russian fairy tales. Alexander Garden which is taking place by a line, always attracts here muscovites and visitors of the capital for promenades and rest between old trees and fresh flowers.
The second is Poklonnaya mountain, where in 1812 Napoleon expected keys from Moscow. In honour ofа the 50th anniversary of a victory above Germany and for respect to the numerous victims which have lost during the Second world war, in 1995 here was constructed huge pantheon and temples for visiting by the believers of the different confessions.
The third object is the great temple of the Christ of the Rescuer restored in 2000 in honour of then anniversary Messiah. In the beginning it was constructed in 1913 due to the donations of the Russian believers, which thus have noted the 100th victory above Napoleon France, having chosen a very convenient place opposite to Kremlin on the same coast of Moscow river. In 1936 the temple was blown up and is destroyed up to the basis. Within many years on this place the pool with warmed up water intended mainly for winter bathing function which very much liked muscovites. For short time the skeleton of a temple from ferro-concretes instead of a clay brick was restored which not absolutely suited for internal, wall, colour frescos. Now again the white temple, with the domes, covered with gold, is seen from various places and pleasantly decorates an aspect of the city. In it 12000 orthodox christians simultaneously can pray.
The large problem for all Russia and for Moscow is the shortage perfect, convenient roads and highways. It appreciably has grown recently, when Moscow was overflowed by the recentlyа acquired cars and transit lorries. Though many tunnels, overpasses, viaducts and bridges etc. as last years did not build earlier so, but, unfortunately, transport problem, which also causes exhaust gases, dangerous to health, and shortage of garages, very much disturbs the Moscow government and inhabitants.
Moscow for visiting
In Moscow were born and lived many sportsmen have glorified the city and the country by the achievements and records, whose names are well known in the world. Though many stadiums and other sports arenas here function, but two require an obligatory mention largest: Luzhniky and Olympic.
Opposite to already the mentioned high place of Moscow - Vorobyov mountains, Moscow river does turn and as though flows round a peninsula named Luzhniky (a root of a word there is from a word "pool"), whose most remarkable objects are Novodevichy monastery and same cemetery. Into it, by the way, is buried Nikita Khrushev, which at life as the chief of government directly supervised over construction by line of the located sports complex which has begun to function in 1956. It can simultaneously visit about 100 000 sports fans. Mainly there are football competitions. The very remarkable events have taken place on it in 1957 and 1980. The students and youth which has arrived from all world for participation in the 6th international festival participated in the first measure. Then Esperanto has received a strong pulse for the development in USSR. The second was the 20th Olympiad, whose measures are unforgettable till now, is especial its talisman - Mishka or Bear cub. As many covered sports structures for game in hockey and basketball, occupation by gymnastics, struggle there are located,а etc. Remarkable is the springboard functioning the year round, even when there is no snows.
The name of a sports complex Olympic does not require translation, because, it is obvious, that it has constructed for realization the 20th Olympic games, past in Moscow in 1980. The big covered sports arena is intended for realization of any competitions, and the self moving wall allows to carry out different competitions in two halls simultaneously. The water kinds of sports will carry out in a number the located pool, which became also birthplace of many national and international records.
аIt is impossible here to present and to describe all various museums working in Moscow, as their quantity exceeds 100. As it is difficult to choose most remarkable, you see it is obvious, that everyone has own exhibits and tasks. In my opinion, deserve an obligatory mention Tretyakov gallery, which represents not only own extensive collection, but also constantly exposes pictures from other countries (NB. One of the most remarkable masterpieces is the picture Alexander Ivanov " The Appearance of Christ to the people ", which he drew during forty years. Its size is vast 540 x 750 ёь!). Paul and Serge Tretyakov were the rich traders assembling a pictures mainly of the Russian masters, since 1856 in their perfect building, which was projected by the great Russian artist Victor Vasnetsov (NB. One of his remarkable pictures refers to as "Alenushka", on which the sister of the sunk brother from a popular Russian fairy tale) is represented. In 1892 the brothers have presented a collection and building to muscovites, that those freely examined them and enjoyed masterpieces of the great artists.
The book was within many centuries one of the most important sources of the information in the world. Before its occurrence the peoples used different ways for record something necessary. In Russia natural conditions and other reasons have not allowed to leave and to keep records similar for example on Shoumer cuneiform on clay from 3000 years B.C. Only birch rind from the 9th century of our era was found, on which there are most ancient Russian scratched inscriptions. The christianity which has come in Russia and christening Russian in Dnieper, flowing through Kiev (now Ukraine), in 988, has brought here except for another also church books from Byzantium.
The brothers Ciril and Methody have created the slavic alphabet, which gradually was successfully distributed in East Europe and became base for translation of the Byzantian books in more clear slavic language. It till now is used in church services, but now usual people hardly understand it.
The above mentioned explanations are necessary for clause about the Moscow libraries, that it is better to understand, that they are taken from the books which are taking place in the most important library of Russia, named: State Library of Russia. Its funds in the beginning were private, but the Soviet government has nationalized it and one copy of all books, issued in the country, by all means has ordered to hand over in this library. Now there is possible to find by necessity anyone, even most rare, book. Many years the Library carried a name Lenin, which has given back many efforts for liquidation of illiteracy in then Russia and ignorance of two thirds of population.
The advanced means of dialogue (computers, Internet etc) have not passed by the Moscow libraries, which now represent now not only, but also another's book funds from other countries.
In general quantity of the Moscow libraries is difficult for counting, because almost each school, the enterprise, district of the city, university etc have its. However is appreciable, that the present generation reads the printed books and magazines less, than the previous.
This sphere of the Moscow activity already is slightly submitted in clause about Ostankino, which really is a cradle of Russian theatre. Performances of that time each summer in the palace is possible to look.
Now in Moscow many theatres with constant troupes works, and also here go on tour annually actors from other places of Russia and from abroad. The Third World Theatrical Olympiad, past in 2001 with the large success is worthy mentions.
One of the largest areas at the centre of the capital refers as Theatrical, on it three theatres are located, without which the story about this theme would be not complete.
The speech goes about Bolshoy (Large), Maly (Small) and Children's theatres. They form as though common architectural ensemble environmental the area from three parties, and its centre decorate flowers and beautiful fountains, reject upwards water.
It is inconvenient to explain the opposite names of two theatres Bolshoy and Maly, as now both buildings large on volume and are almost equal. Probably, earlier during their occurrence at the end of the 18th century someone wanted, thus, them to distinguish even on height.
Bolshoy theatre is intended mainly for display of performances and operas, though it is also world famous because of important in life of the country of the events which have occurred in it; for example the First Congress of Soviets formed USSR. It is necessary to notice, that in it the great Russian composers aspired for the first time to present the products, as unique acoustics of its hall allowed completely to show musical intentions of the authors.
Unfortunately, long service to public, and also some fires have made the further operation of the building dangerous to the visitors, as many building elements are made of a tree. Soon should enter into operation branch of theatre located by a line, and then to carry out overhaul of an old structure.
Maly theatre frequently name as Ostrovsky`s House, because near it the monument is established in honour of the great Russian playwrightа Alexander Ostrovsky, whose plays by all means each season is possible to look at the theatre. The writer was a muscovite on birth and consequently well knew an image of life of the inhabitants of 19th century. Though his products shined mainly problems of that epoch, but, however they are also actual today, therefore all of them go with the large success. Many generations of the actors of the theatre use a correct, classical Russian pronunciation with some emphasis, not applying anyone neologisms, as want to keep it for the contemporaries. It allows the spectators not only to enjoy performances, but also beautiful, pure Russian.
The opposite party from Maly theatre is occupied by an ancient, beautiful building, in which since 1921 the Children's theatre works. Then post-war epoch has caused huge quantity waifs, which did not go in school, the houses and works had no. The criminality was their main occupation. Applying different ways, the government could in short time solve this difficult task and already soon majority of children and youth have begun to visit schools and to work, and also have seen the clear, positive purposes in the long term.
In the important contribution to it has brought Nataly Sac (though she was only 16 year's girl!), which has based and many years supervised over Children's theatre. Due to her huge enthusiasm has arisen and soon there was very popular a completely new theatrical genre - children's, which entertains till now spectators different ages. Frequently children without any theatrical practice together with the professional actors took part in representations to transfer the naivety both sincerity to the spectators. After the Second world war Nataly Sac supervised over Musical Children's theatre, which now carries her name.
Fortunately majority of the Moscow theatres is kept in the repertoires by the classical plays created by the Russian and foreign playwrights. Probably, therefore their halls are always packed with the spectators, and the tickets are usually difficult for getting.
It is impossible to mention all great writers and poets were born and working in Moscow. But, at least, four of them means require. A name of the first is Alexander Pushkin was born here in 1799. During the short life (he was lost 37 year's on duel from a bullet ofа French Dantes, protecting honour of the wife Nataly) they wrote many poems, verses and prose, from which most famous is his novel in verses " Eugene Onegin ". It together with others 200 products of Pushkin is translated in Esperanto.
To the second worthy mention the talented writer is Mickael Lermontov, which has lived shorter life and also was lost on duel (1814-1841), though it is impossible to tell, that his books inheritance less valuable, than similar from Pushkin. Actually he was the infantry officer and, hence, his literary creativity was not approved. Also him extravagant sights and the opinions frequently did not like then to the aristocrats. The tsar has sent him on Caucasus, where then there was a war, that he there was lost. Reading his products (verses, prose, poem etc) is very difficult to present his as young man, as it is obvious, that he deeply knew described events and consequently the characters, created by him, seem very real.
The third great Russian writer could be the true grandfather for both above mentioned, as has lived 82 years. His name is count Leo Tolstoy. Though he was born near Moscow in Clear Glade, but many products he has written in Moscow. Till now in his Moscow manor the museum works.
Theodore Dostoevsky was the second son of the military doctor serving in Mariynsky hospital, located near one of most beautiful places of Moscow - Maryina Grove. There he was lead the childhood and youth. As the outstanding writer he was become famous already in St. Petersburg.
The certain pieces of music and tools, as well as national language, are the most essential representatives of any people, on which the experts can determine their belonging. Music in Russia developed within centuries on the following main directions: classical or salon and national. The achievement of the Russian musicians and singers in classical style now are world famous. Many Russian great artists teach music inside the country and abroad from USA up to Japan. Also prospers, even it is wider, national music, which is a part of Russian folklore.
From middle of 19th century there are professional musical ensembles and already amateur groups or individuals for a long time were formed which play only on national tools: bayan or accordion and harmoshka (harmonic of the different form), balalaika (three string tool of the triangular form with a signature stamp for fingers), rozhok or horn, gusly (multistring tool similar to zither) etc.
In Moscow the fans of music can find many premises on the taste and listen to music in them. Some Moscow museums represent all concerning to Russian musical art and activity of the great Russian musicians: Borodin, Tchaykovsky, Rakhmaninov etc.
Frequently in Moscow are various musical competitions and festivals, whose prestige is very high in the world. All winners very much are proud of successes achieved here.
I am not sure at all about perfection of the contents of my essay, which probably has satisfied not all questions interested about Moscow city and Moscow river, but do not forget, that it is my first product, which seems deserves indulgence. I expect the remark, opinions and councils of the readers, which with gratitude will be accepted and by necessity answered.
Some years ago in Russia and in the world were very popular and till now lyrical song " The Near Moscow evenings " is favourite (translated in Esperanto K.Gusev), which, in my opinion, suits to finish the story and to present a very small fragment of the great Russian civilization.
Even rustles are not audible in a garden
All here stand till morning.
If you would know, as to me are expensive
Near Moscow evenings.
River flows and does not flow,
All from lunar silver,
The song is heard and is not heard
These lunar evenings.
That you lovely look oblique,
Low head incline?
It is difficult to state and to not state,
All that on heart at me.
And the dawn all is more appreciable,
So, please, be of goods,
Do not forget also you these summer
Near Moscow evenings.
In Russia there is a proverb: " It is better once to see, than hundred
times to hear ". I think, that it very correct, therefore come to Moscow
to have a good time here! I shall be very happy, if your visit will come to
pass due to my modest contribution and it becomes pleasant rest.
2001, 2002, 2003
P.S. Please inform the author about your desire to copy and to publish the essay.